A joitn conference on inland navigation was organised in Sweden on 9th February 2017.
The conference was entitled with "Regionala och lokala vattenvägar – har Sverige flyt?"
(Regional and local waterways - does Sweden have flow?)
Please find herewith a short summary of the one day conferece in English language.
Introduction and welcome
Inland Waterways – potential and barriers in an international perspective
by Joachim Glassell, CEO, Sjöfartsforum
The Swedish Maritime Forum is in operation since 1996 and has 110 members. It is financed by members and has had a special focus on IWW since its formation.
In all about 500 million tons are carried yearly on IWW in Europe, i.e. about 6% of total transport work. Mainly rivers and canals, with the use following more or less GDP, with a stagnant development over later years. River Rhein is dominating by over 80% of the total, with bulk as the largest products. For transport work, then it is BE, NL and GE, that take 75%, but nationally as share is highest in Rumania. For the future, coal and petrol is expected to fall, but agri and building mtrl is expected to increase. Most positive lately of all is container.
Within the EU there is a political processes, and have its own 2013 program, Naiadis, with four areas, barriers, waterways maintenance, reduced pollution – i.e. reduce emissions, and better involved in inter-modality and educate the staff on board. Generally small crafts that are not as efficient and old. The digital revolution is awaiting still. The market is difficult to predict, which has held back investments, and at the same time, has held back infrastructure investments. Many talk, and few do work in the most favourable direction.
Potential for inland and coastal shipping in Sweden– results from the Swedish Maritime Administrations 10 months investigation for the Government
by Björn Garberg (Swedish Maritime Administrations)
The first Swedish maritime strategy came in 2013, but no trace came in the instructions of state administrations. But several investigations, like this. A lot has been said and written about this, by many, and that was the reason behind this investigation. Started in Feb 2016 and ready in Dec 2016.
There has been five parts; societal costs, rules, does the physical infrastructure match, flow of cargo in the country, passenger trp. Limited case-studies done, also by way of the national cargo calculator: SAMGODS. The project has also created an inter-active map where potential is presented. Container and roro in focus, and not on longer and heavier cargo, and passengers only in Sthlm and Göteborg.
Is there a potential for IWW? Yes, cargo exist, and there are flows, from north to south, and within the highly populated areas. There are national state prognoses that indicate higher future volumes, and more containers, and we have both capacity and many ports. Not least important – political support.
Challenges are that cargo on ships will not be transported rapidly, and not in small batches, which does not always match. It is a business with small margins. Where is then the potential? Geographically, it is limited to the two big lakes, and then number of customers are not very many. There is also a need for continued transport by other means, after reloading, all under strong competition. A complicated situation – the model indicate a share for IWW of 0.3%, but there is still 4 000 ton five days per week between Västerås and Södertälje. Limited potential, but to off-load roads, there is a certain potential for certain connections. In all some 146 places to load and unload in Sweden in total – compared to the figure used normally of 80.
Total cargo volume in Sweden, all transport modes, in a year, which is approximately 400 mt / year, with only 8% is more than 300 km. In this, there is already oil by ship along the coast. On the positive side, we have a lot of ports and regulations that could be adopted to the kind of cargo – but the outcome of the regulations is not exactly known. The volumes available is not so large, and the potential is limited.
Those Swedish ports that are connected with international ports could give larger volumes, but using SOLAS ships. Why truck and train cargo through the country when we can keep it at sea much closer to its destination, and especially from the south coast? There is a lot of cargo in these relations, and it will reduce emissions, and a lot of potential much more cargo, possible relations, and good potential.
Cost side: Opex on board + other like ports, state fees, and initial costs. Ports are in a difficult situation, but there needs to be an overview done how it can be adjusted (ports are 36 – 62% of costs), while state costs are about 3 – 10%. The new model for fairway dues from 2018 will, probably, hit inland harder – this needs to be further investigated. An Eco-bonus could be discussed, or e.g. lower fair-way dues initially for a test period – or low interest loans. Smaller customers are, perhaps not as eager to find new ideas and try new ways of transport their cargo… WE need to work together and find ways, and to inspire cargo agents, which is one important issue. In all we see that the political ideas to move cargo towards sea is not supported by actions. We need an action-plan which is time bound, preferably with someone coordinating this, a person with responsibility is needed here!
First of all we need to work together to initiate.
Regulations for Inland Waterways – where are we and where do we want to come?
by Johan Isaksson (Swedish Transport Agency)
The Swedish Transport Agency is the Swedish regulator in shipping and IWW
“Sweden should have the best rules in Europe for Shipping” – it was said, but where are we?
We see three alternative, IWW rules, certificate in line with international rules, new national rules – Swedish ships, that do not fall under international rules.
Five more: those with SOLAS rule, IWW where they have chosen these rules, and PNF that has not selected IWW.
In Sweden we do not have as sharp rules between the different regulations, but we have archipelagos and large lakes where it could be big waves. We had no rules previously, and came in 2014, to be able to compete with road and rail. National rules for crewing, for which there is an investigation to come from the government. Sweden also have a special areas and in zone 3 we have average of the highest 1/3 of waves under 0.6 meter. In 2 it is 1.2 m and in 1 it is 2m. The metrological institute has investigated other coastal areas, but some are not possible, and some possible. If a measurement has been done, a classification should be set.
PNF – project national instructions. It will focus on relatively few rules, but will also include a lot of supporting material. Sweden is also pushing internationally, for the same view. PNF will be new for both commercial and some leisure boats. Want to facilitate for coastal routes to reach qualifications, and then to get enough time on board to keep the qualification. PNF tells what should be reached, but now how. Now there will be an instruction about what is needed and some basic demands. We hope to be able to allow users to qualify when they can explain functionality – probably first in the world. Once issued, things will probably have to change, or at least be adjusted. There will be a need for users to do their own inspections, but still there will be risk-groups that needs to be followed-up better. There could be more IWW-zones, but difficult to class, like in the passage of the Lantsort Lighthouse (outside Nynäshamn). There is still no application by STA to use the IWW rules? Goal based standards – functional and goal based standards is an area where the work is ongoing in IMO – going forward, as some are fully against, and some agree. Crewing rules could hopefully be decided upon by early 2019.
Regional and local projects – cargo and passenger transport on water.
Off-load the city road transport, the cities road transport, through its cargo strategy
by Märta Brolinson (Stockholms City)
We have been looking into this, and we have just issued our now cargo strategy for the city with about 1 million inhabitants. The city constitutes 14 islands and 54 bridges – this could be a hindrance, but geography also opens possibilities.
We have seen solutions in other cities in Europe and would like to use some of these. Three different relatively new reports have been issued in the last two years – all in Swedish though. These indicate from the political side “…a town on water, and while the trade grows, the competition increase, and we need to strengthen the space used for cargo and passengers” (said from the political side). We now have a budget, and will use the reports produced to show the possibilities given for the future. We have had a risk focus now when we foresee the closure of the near oil terminals – savings in risk, accidents, and emissions by the possible alternatives. For these we have had a number of smaller studies.
Slussen (rebuilding of a large traffic arrangements on a small central island), constructors have already in 2017 shipped 3 000 ton by towed barge to the site. For all major rebuilding sites we would like to use shipping for these kinds of sourcing already by the end of 2017.
There is a long list of areas where we are working, and we need to combine these now, and especially as we have forbidden traffic with trucks over 3.5 tonnes between 23 – 06 every day. Have started combined-load /unloading-stations, using these for both inbound cargo as well as for waste – e.g. in and out.
DenCity – urban cargo transport
by Viktor Daun (SSPA)
Cities are under challenge as much is going the be constructed at central locations. In GBG we expect 25 000 more inhabitants, and 45 000 workplaces inside ten years, with practically all that in the centre – while we build a five km double-tunnel in town for Euro 3 bn.
A demonstrator will be designed in central GBG for cargo and waste. We will catch cargo from 7 km upstream north in the large Göta River and then on to the heating station – 4 km up the smaller stream east ward (Säveån). We have a limited budget and we need to use the vessel that is available. Although we know that other would be more suitable. Could be waste container lifted directly from truck. Even if we have a lot of river-sides in town, the availability is low, and the older quays are in bad shape. A lot of different measures will be made and calculations; will serve as a test of rules, emissions and possibility to run such a project.
Despite small scale, we still think this has potential and that many cities would also like it to happen. We have to see these initiatives be included early in the process. When it comes to size of vessels, it could be seeing new definitions like “StockholmMax”.
EMMA - Enhancing freight mobility and logistics
by Per-Erik Holmberg, Business Manager (Rise ICT)
This is practically a sister of NÖKS – but is an Interreg Baltic Sea Region Programme project, with five partners. Principally the same arguments here as argued for in NÖKS, but with other partner countries. Poland is one of few to increase its share of IWW (…but no-one present knew the reason behind – my guess is more Oder than the coast area).
Five areas included: to inform about IWW, to improve the attitudes towards IWW, to reduce cost for IWW, to improve the administrative structures for IWW, and to start demonstrators. There are problems in expanding IWW in parts of the geographical area covered, but the problems are different in different countries. The EMMA project hope to have a stand during the political week at Almedalen, at Gotland, this summer.
We, as NÖKS, try to adjust existing flows to what IWW can supply. The process here in EMMA is to follow-up on the different small investigation projects that have been done during the last year. Then to selected what can become an initial serious project. The idea is to get started with a pilot-project here in Sweden. The idea now is to do a building material recycling project for central Sthlm. We are now starting to go into rules locally, and what kind of ships can be used and what is then needed to do with this. There will be a handbook in the end of the project time, to assist others that want to register a ships under Swedish rules in the future. We have also decided to focus on piloting for our parts, as that has proved to be a problematic area around Lake Mälaren. In addition, what has been developed around Sea Traffic Management (STM) for SOLAS ships and in connection to port calls, in much the same manner as for air, could also be a way to support shipping.
NÖKS – Short-Sea shipping in Öresund, Kattegatt och Skagerrak
by Christian Finnsgård (SSPA)
“SSS-in shipping” has Interreg as financing source. It includes all aspects including IWW – in all there are 21 partners from SE, DE and NO. Safe, efficient and environment trip in the region. The project has covered 1.5 year, and still 1.5 year to go. Our area has been linked through shipping for 1000 years, but since trucking improved this has changed. We will still need trucks, but too often it is used for the whole link. Safety, in the form of accidents and noise, is areas where shipping has a strong point. No problem with capacity on the roads, if we look at roads in a 24 h perspective. Same at sea, and where we have no capacity problem and know that we need low investments. For our region, we have something in common in-between our regions – we have water! Which goes for both Norway and Sweden. We need to develop our ports for this, adjust handling to fit transit of in- and outbound existing cargo flows, and to see to that is fits on board. We will try to develop logistics to sea. We carry one area of responsibility per country. The project will deliver ways to go forward on each area. E.g., it will be more environmentally friendly, and decide who has the responsibility for the problematic factors. We do not take responsibility for a better solution that perhaps, is more expensive. We will also push for IT solutions, although these cannot be fully developed during the project.
In the project we will use pusher with container Gbg – Uddevalla, and a handful of other projects.
by Björn Södahl (Södahl & Partners AB)
Towards a sustainable multimodal urban transport system. We think it could be in the form of electric and some units will be autonomous. World share of people living in cities is 50%, and is expected to be 67% in 2050. We see the waterways as one of the only free, un-used, areas in cities. The carrying capacity on water is very large. Intermodal systems, kept together, will have a considerable future. By 2030, the mobility industry could have entered this market and have a strong product to deliver / sell to the world. We have, perhaps, been focusing too much on scale in shipping and with a lacking tech development compared to e.g. trucks. Internationalisation of costs for each kind of transport works in the direction of shipping. Larger initiatives to coordinate cargo handling, and other IT development, can help to support this with a strong knowledge-base in this area. Why Sweden? We have a strong maritime sector, strong knowledge base in our vehicle industry, use our cooperative traditions, and now a coming regulation based on demand “trying to tell what should be solved – and not how!”
Integration – Cooperation – Continued investments = the Swedish Innovation Agency, three steps for new projects. Integrering – Samverkansprojekt – Följdinvestering = the three steps hos Vinnova for a project.
Cargo on river Göta Älv and lake Vänern
by Carina Gullberg (kommunalråd i Gullspångs kommun, styrelseledamot Vänersamarbetet & Vänerhamn, Göran Lidström VD Vänerhamn)
We in the community of Gullspång (East side of the lake) with 6 ooo inhabitants own 13% of the ports in Lake Vänern, through Vänerhamn. But the lake is also about fishing, and tourism, but today it is about cargo transport. One company that was formed in 1994, today has five ports, and operate two more. All ships to us must pass Göteborg, the Göta River and six locks that has a maximum of 13m x 88m x 5,4m – allows ships of 4.000 dwt, and 2 mty in total. Some of the companies in the Vänern area are more or less totally dependent on shipping, and would move out if shipping was not available. Low costs for infrastructure, yes, but we still need new locks along Göta River by 2030 – when then present locks must be re-build (estimated to Eur 250 mill). We had an increase of 5% in the ports during 2016, and hopes to see an increase also in 2017. The new bridge in Göteborg, being build right now, will allow 12 meter high passage for shipping, and 19 m under the old bridge. Also during 2017 there will be 20 closures dur to the building of the bridge, two of seven days each with 4 days in-between (e.g. if you sail up the lake – one day in each direction – you run the risk of getting stuck if over-staying). For us piloting is a large cost, and we have been active in this. We need a decision about the new looks
Non-motorised barge concept - Göta River from Göteborg to Vänersborg
by Johan Lantz (Avatar Logistics)
Blue is the new green – Avatar has big owners; VT group from Rotterdam, Ahlmarks, and Thunbolagen shipping lines from Karlstad and Lidköping. Avatar would like to develop new logistics solutions. We identified this project last year and have hope to that there will be more and cheaper areas available. When a test has been done and we have summarised the test, we hope to be able to present and attract other customers. We know that there is an idea among many customers who would like to see a depot in the southern Lake Vänern area. For operators to start and work with IWW, it takes a long time to get established and gain the confidence of the cargo owners. For our first sailing we will load in Göteborg and sail 6/3 and unload 7/3 in Vänersborg – and the evaluation of the event will follow.
The Stockholm road bypass
by Bengt Niklasson (Trafikverket)
The largest infra project that has been started in Sweden. There will be about 20 million tons of crushed stone taken out of the tunnels, in all 21 km and 18 of that in tunnel. It will pass west Sthlm with the E4 motorway. Will take about 10 years, have capacity for 140 000 cars per day, at a price a clear bit over EURO 3 billion. Normally trucks will be used for transport, but this time shipping will be used for half the volume. With the permit for the construction, it was said that transport will not be allowed by trucks on a few of the islands. As a result, there will be three temporary ports build, and three receiving terminals by the stone buyers. In all, the cost of the process, the costs for this preparatory part, including processing in the environmental courts, is about Euro 2 / ton. In all in the project there will be 26 mt handled in the project. All the ports will be ready by mid-2017. The ships / barges will be between 2 – 4 000 tonnes, with a maximum draught of 5 m. A lot of additional sea-surveys have been done to prepare the necessary new fairways, where new marking is in place, set out by the Maritime Administration. This is a form of full-scale test of handling in a large project where the instruction has forced the use of IWW in place.
Future trip is blue, and green – how do we make IWW to become even more environmentally friendly?
Waterways – the intermodal part of the jig-zaw pussel towards resource efficient regional and city trip.
by Karl Garme (KTH)
A lot of different participants in different arenas. Water – the intermodal piece in the jig-zaw. How can water add value to existing infrastructure. We are working towards both wast out of town and building material in to central town – Bålsta would the destination here. We do not only see handling of low cost material, but also some things that offload a lot of trucks. We are also working on the accessibility with e.g. “the last mile”, done here by bike distribution with mini-containers. Flexibility, shown with a picture from the Öland bridge, where, instead building more and wider bridge, by moving bikes and passengers to ferries running near the bridge.
One of the unique values could be a flexibility, used during a period, while e.g. building and then go back to “normal”. It could also be the use of a tow-barge being slowly loaded/unloaded, and then moved; not using valuable land. Some problems identified, has proved impossible to evaluate in the way we currently analyse and evaluate advantages and disadvantages. We, and especially the authorities that do long term planning, needs to be able to identify projects that will include these indirect factors.
We also need to remember that there is a lot of work being done, and we are, here right now, creating a network.
New sustainable solutions for Swedish road-ferries
by Anders Werner (rederichef, Färjerederiet)
A beautiful picture of one of the 70 yellow state road ferries that run on 41 road connections in Sweden, carrying 22 million passengers, and made one million call during 2016. Only one litre per call of saved fuel would be important, and for that we own and operate a simulator to train eco-driving. We know that there could be a 50% difference between two captains. We know that there is a 70% saving to use a wire to direct and pull the ferry instead of a fee sailing ferries. There is an option for a new ferry in Estonia that STA discuss to be converted to, a hybrid. An attempt will be made with HVO, to reduce CO2. There is an ongoing planning for methanol, and LNG, but to be able to move in-between lines, “fleet management” this type of alternatives is difficult. We want to set aims for the employees towards an environmental program, making individual lines environmental certified, with a strict follow-up of results.
Emission Free Waterways - fossilfri sjöfart med biohybrider
by Andreas Westergren (CEO, Eurofeeder AB)
We have long worked with a new drive-line for “fossile free electric-battery-and-bio-gas”. Electricity to drive, quiet, clean and efficient. To be used under a day, 12h, and no refill. Year around in Swedish climate. Boat build for full recycling and to carry a lot of bikes. Three sizes, 75, 150 and 250 pass. These are of standard Damen boats, to be used where some proposals are presented. There is a lot of bio-gas in Sthlm and the Göteborg area – believe nothing else.
Cargo, where we also see a centre of logisicts in Södertälje 50 km south town with good road, sea and rail connections – and with a lock to Lake Mälaren. Intend to carry on from there by barge to building sites in Sthlm. The bio-hybrid small bulk ship of 1250 dwt to carry construction equipment as cargo, also a Damen ship ready to buy in the market. The bio-gas is locally produced and we will do pilot studies in Sthlm and GBG. Test will start in a year from Öckerö (outside north of GBG) to central GBG and one line in Sthlm – Scandinavianbiogas
The waterway 365 – passengertransport on water
by Susanna Kihl (Vattenbussen)
365 – days in the year, and a wide approach to waterways. In the mentis-vote done among participants of the seminar, about how to liberate travelling. Accessibility and new business models were the two most supported.
Aim and purpose, - societal profit should be the aim. Waterways are not used as well as they could.
Being small today, and serving relatively few (about 1% of total public travelling in Sweden) does not indicate that there is not a large potential. We are easily forgetting that there is indirect pollution, then we give the instruction to build with the lowest price direct. Forgetting that we build in more CO2 by building more infrastructure.
We are a lot of actors involved in these processes, and most of these do not see themselves as the one carrying the responsibility to push the process. The one taking the initiative have often something to gain – often from economic grounds. The authority responsible, and those that organise, seldom has anything at all to gain from e.g. the implementation of a low carbon solution. The potential passenger has his own veto – if he decided to take the car – then the investment in something else will not matter. There is a need for interchange-points to be able to change between the different kinds of public communication.
We have to make use of the waterways to improve and to get a “better flow in the traffic”
Which role do we want to assign to local and regional water trp in Sweden by 2030?
Panel participants: Björn Garberg (Swedish Maritime Administration), Märta Brolinson (Stockholm City), Björn Södahl (Göteborgs City), Johan Lantz (Avatar Logistics
STHLM- Local transport at that time will be important to off-load the roads, and we hope for technique to take big steps forward. There is a need for someone to coordinate this. We would like to see better access in town, and because of that we see a number of different sector. Avatar-there will be a change coming earlier than what we think. Sjöv – there is a risk for passenger trp, and despite more trp we will compensate by higher utilisation. GBG – there is a need for better accessibility for cities, and therefore there is a need for more coordination. We see technical advances, and less disturbing transport, from noise emissions and so on.
??Most important to get things done?
R- Need for a coordinator that cannot dictate, but push! SMA has done the investigation and could well be the institution, but locally there is a need for saving quays to make it possible.
?? In the similar huge project in Göteborg, Västlänken, next to the river, there has been no instruction from the state to use the river for transport – should not have been only trucks for the millions of m3 in Göteborg.
R-There is a need for trucks, but the long part should be moved to water.
R-When Lidel, accepted the pattern – it was only one supplier and a positive handler.
??With less diesel use, we need to increase demand also on shipping – similar to what we demand on the road.
R-With autonomy we can decrease the size, which is importance of price.
??Projects must be tried in water, not only in written reports, but where there can never be enough of projects. Days like this are important though to give a picture and knowledge to all.
R- Need of quays are slowly becoming understood on the political level. We have not given up, as we need to share space – no problem having a barge in front of a window.
??New parts of the cities to be build, there is little space reserved for other uses.
R-agree, we are selling our quays far too cheap, and need to see a more flexible use of areas - like near the Eiffel Tower in central Paris where it is closed while handling in the morning and open after.
??Do the big cities also include the near communities?
R-not really, but sadly, that has not been easy, partly because no one is taking the lead. The leading voice requested by the SMA is, perhaps, missing here.
A last word from the panellists – What has happened inside one year?
-End of Conference-